Selected readings:

‘The Medium Is The Massage: An Inventory Of Effects’ (1967)
by Marshall McLuhan/Quentin Fiore

“Authorship” – in the sense we know it today, individual intellectual effort related to the book as an economic commodity – was practically unknown before the advent of print technology.” (pp 122)

“Many small texts were transmitted into volumes of miscellaneous content, very much like “jottings” in a scrapbook, and, in this transmission, authorship was often lost. (pp 122)

“The invention of printing did away with anonymity,……and the habit of considering intellectual effort as private property…..The rising consumer-oriented culture became concerned with labels of authenticity and protection against theft and piracy. The idea of copyright – “the exclusive right to re-produce, publish, and sell the matter and form of literary and artistic work” – was born.” (pp122)

As a result if copyright was deemed the correct way forward all
those years ago, why is it that greed has once again reared its
ugly head and certain companies have taken it upon themselves
to issue contracts ‘claiming’ the copyright for commissioned
works, and even in some cases, those said companies are forming
‘Stock Libraries’, to re-sell these artworks without any credit or
payment made to the author of the work(s)???? Please beware,
read the small print and join your professional organisation such
as: Association of Illustrators (
Association of Photographers (
Society of Authors (

‘Travels In Hyperreality’ (Picador 1986)
by Umberto Eco

“… is still equally untrue that acting on the form and contents of the message can convert the person receiving it. For the receiver of the message seems to have a residual freedom: the freedom to read it in a different way. I say “different” and not “mistaken.” A brief look at the mechanics of communication can tell us something more precise on this subject.” (pp 138)

Although this is written primarily about media journalism the
same can also be said of artworks and how the public sees or
reads them. (Also with the briefing of a design or illustration
job, how the designer or illustrator ‘understands’ the brief will
determine the overall look of the finished work.)

“The methods of this cultural guerrilla have to be worked out. Probably in the interrelation of the various communications media, one medium can be employed to communicate a series of opinions on another medium. To some extent this is what a newspaper does when it criticizes a TV program. But who can assure us that the newspaper article will read in the way we wish?” (pp 143)

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